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    Grain weight and volume conversion table and chart
    weights per bushel, weights of grain by volume, moisture conversion and planting rates

    contents
    1. Grain and Seed Weights per Bushel
    2. Approximate Weight of Grain by Volume
    3. Moisture Conversion for Ear and Shelled Corn
    4. More useful sites
    Grain and Seed Weights per Bushel
    Crop Weight per bushel in pounds
    Alfalfa60
    Barley48
    Clover, Alsike60
    Clover, Crimson60
    Clover, Ladino60
    Clover, White60
    Clover, Red60
    Clover Sweet60
    Corn, shelled56
    Corn, ear70
    Cotton32
    Cowpeas60
    Flax60
    Grass, Brome (smooth)14
    Grass, Blue14
    Grass, Fescue (tall)14
    Grass, Orchard14
    Grass, Redtop14
    Grass, Timothy45
    Lespedeza40-50
    Millet50
    Oats32
    Rape60
    Rye56
    Sorghum, forage50
    Sorghum, grain56
    Soybeans60
    Sudan grass28
    Sunflower (oil type)24-32
    trefoil, Birdsfoot60
    Vetch60
    Wheat60

    Approximate Weight of Grain by Volume
    Standard bushel weight in poundsPounds per cubic feet
    6048.18
    5644.97
    5040.15
    4838.54
    4536.14
    2822.48
    1411.24
    70 (ear corn)28.001

    1 Varies widly with ear size and moisture content.

    Measuring cubic feet

    Width in feet multiplied by length in feet multiplied by depth of grain in feet equals cubic feet in square or rectangular enclosures.

    10 ft. width x 14 ft. length x 9 ft. grain depth = 1,260 cu. ft.

    In circular bins, the formula is: pi (3.14) multiplied by the radius squared, multiplied by the depth of grain = cubic feet.

    Obtaining total grain weight

    Multiply cubic feet of volume by the appropriate figure from Table 2 under Pounds/Cubic Feet.

    If actual bushel weight (test weight) is available, multiply actual bushel weight by 0.803. This calculation will give a more accurate figure for lbs./cu. ft. than you can get from the table.

    Moisture Conversion for Ear and Shelled Corn
    Percent moisture in grainHarvest weight (lbs.) of ear corn to yield 56 shelled corn at 15.5% moisture1Shelled corn (lbs.) Equivalent to 56 lbs. shelled corn at 15.5% moisture
    1063.4952.56
    10.563.8652.87
    1164.2553.16
    11.554.6553.46
    1265.0653.77
    12.565.6054.08
    1365.9554.39
    13.566.4254.70
    1466.8955.02
    14.567.3955.34
    1567.8955.67
    15.568.4056.00
    1668.9456.33
    16.569.5156.67
    1770.0957.01
    17.570.6957.35
    1871.3157.70
    18.571.9558.06
    1972.6058.41
    19.573.2758.78
    Percent moisture in grainHarvest weight (lbs.) of ear corn to yield 56 shelled corn at 15.5% moisture1Shelled corn (lbs.) Equivalent to 56 lbs. shelled corn at 15.5% moisture
    2073.9659.15
    20.574.6059.52
    2175.3659.89
    21.576.0760.28
    2276.7960.66
    22.577.5361.05
    2378.2561.45
    23.579.0161.85
    2479.7662.26
    24.580.5062.67
    2581.2563.09
    25.582.0363.51
    2682.8263.94
    26.583.5064.38
    2784.1964.82
    27.584.9065.26
    2885.6265.72
    28.586.3266.18
    2987.0466.64
    29.587.7667.12
    Percent moisture in grainHarvest weight (lbs.) of ear corn to yield 56 shelled corn at 15.5% moisture1Shelled corn (lbs.) Equivalent to 56 lbs. shelled corn at 15.5% moisture
    3088.5067.60
    30.589.2268.08
    3189.9468.57
    31.590.6769.08
    3291.4369.58
    32.592.1370.10
    3392.8570.62
    33.593.5571.15
    3494.2871.69
    34.594.9872.24
    3595.7172.80
    1Ear corn values supplied by Dr. Marcus Zuber, University of Missouri Agronomy Department. Ear corn values apply with greatest accuracy at harvest because differences in cob and grain moisture will change in storage. Shelled corn figures apply at any time.

    Obtaining bushels of grain

    Divide total grain weight by appropriate standard bushel weight.

    Obtaining number of hundredweights (cwts.) of grain

    Divide total grain weight by 100.

    Table 4. Moisture conversion for soybeans.
    Percent moisture
    in grain
    Soybeans (lbs. equivalent to 60 lbs.of Soybeans at 13.0% Moisture
    1058.00
    1158.65
    1259.32
    1360.00
    1460.70
    1561.41
    1662.14
    1762.89
    1863.66
    1964.64
    2065.25
    2166.08
    2266.92
    2367.79
    2468.68
    2569.60
    2670.54
    2771.51
    2872.50
    2973.52
    3074.57

    Table 5. Moisture conversion for wheat.

    Percent moisture in grainWheat (lbs.) equivalent to 60 lbs. of wheat at 13.5% moisture
    1057.67
    1158.65
    1259.32
    1359.66
    13.560.00
    1460.35
    1561.06
    1661.79
    1762.53
    1863.29
    1964.07
    2064.88
    2165.70
    2266.54
    2367.40
    2468.29
    2569.20
    2670.14
    2771.10
    2872.08
    2973.10
    3074.14

    Table 6. Moisture conversion for grain sorghum.

    Percent moisture in grainGrain sorghum (lbs.) equivalent to 56 lbs. of grain sorghum at 13% moisture
    1054.13
    1154.74
    1255.36
    1356.00
    1456.65
    1557.32
    1658.00
    1758.70
    1859.41
    1960.15
    2060.90
    2161.67
    2262.46
    2363.27
    2464.11
    2564.96
    2665.83
    2766.74
    2867.67
    2968.62
    3069.60

    Calculating other conversion factors

    These conversion tables cover the most widely grown crops and the most common moisture contents. When you need other conversions, the calculations are relatively simple.

    Use percent dry matter in making conversions because the problem is to obtain the same weight of dry matter as is found in a standard bushel. For example, a standard bushel of wheat contains 60 pounds at 13.5 percent moisture. Thus, 86.5 percent dry matter (100-13.5) x 60 lbs. = 51.9 lbs of dry matter.

    Example. How many pounds of 20.5 percent moisture wheat is equivalent to a standard bushel?

    13.5% Standard Moisture Content = 100 - 13.5 = 86.5% Dry Matter

    20.5% Moisture Content = 100 - 20.5 = 79.5% Dry Matter

    86.5 ? 79.5 = 108.8%

    (108.8 x Standard Bu. Wt. (60 for Wheat)) ? 100 = 65.28 lbs. equivalent to a standard bushel

    To check your answer:

    65.28 x 79.5% dry matter = 51.9 lbs. of dry matter

    Table 7. Common measures and approximate metric equivalents.

    1 liquid teaspoon = 5 milliliters (ml.)
    3 liquid teaspoons = 1 liquid tablespoon = 15 ml.
    2 liquid tablespoons = 1 liquid ounce = 30 ml.
    8 liquid ounces= 1 liquid cup = 0.24 liter (l.)
    2 liquid cups= 1 liquid pint = 0.47 l.
    2 liquid pints= 1 liquid quart = 0.9463 l.
    4 liquid quarts = 1 liquid gallon (U.S.) = 3.7854 l.

    Table 8. Conversion factors for metric and English units.

    Length
    1 mile = 1.609 kilometers; 1 kilometer = 0.621 miles
    1 yard = 0.914 meters; 1 meter = 1.094 yards
    1 inch = 2.54 centimeters; 1 centimeter = 0.394 inches
    Area
    1 square mile = 2.59 square kilometers; 1 square kilometer = 0.386 square miles
    1 acre = 0.00405 square kilometers; 1 square kilometer = 247.1 acres
    1 acre = 0.405 hectares; 1 hectare = 2.471 acres
    Volume
    1 acre-inch = 102.8 cubic meters; 1 cubic meter = 0.00973 acre-inches
    1 quart = 0.946 liters; 1 liter = 1.057 quarts
    1 bushel = 0.352 hectoliters; 1 hectoliter = 2.838 bushels
    Weight
    1 pound = 0.454 kilograms; 1 kilogram = 2.205 pounds
    1 pound = 0.00454 quintals; 1 quintal = 220.5 pounds
    1 ton = 0.9072 metric tons; 1 metric ton = 1.102 tons
    Yield or rate
    1 pound/acre = 1.121 kilograms/hectare; 1 kilogram/hectare = 0.892 pounds/acre
    1 ton/acre = 2.242 tons/hectare; 1 ton/hectare = 0.446 tons/acre
    1 bushel/acre = 1.121 quintals/hectare; 1 quintal/hectare = 0.892 bushels/acre
    1 bushel/acre (60#) = 0.6726 quintals/hectare; 1 quintal/hectare = 1.487 bushels/acre (60#)
    1 bushel/acre (56#) = 0.6278 quintals/hectare; 1 quintal/hectare = 1.597 bushels/acre (56#)
    Temperature
    To convert Fahrenheit (F) to Celsius (C): 0.555 x (F - 32); to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit: 1.8 x (C + 32)

    Table 9. Mixing small quantities of liquid spray. The first column represents concentration of active ingredient per gallon; the second column provides corresponding amount to mix for 1,000 square feet to get 1 pound/acre of active ingredient.

    Concentration of Active Ingredient per GallonAmount to Mix for 1000 sq. ft. to get 1lb./acre of Active Ingredient
    1 lb.7 tablespoons or 103 ml.
    2 lbs.3.5 tablespoons or 51.5 ml.
    3 lbs.2.3 tablespoons or 34.3 ml.
    4 lbs1.7 tablespoons or 25.8 ml.

    Checking planting rate or stand per acre

    This table may be useful in checking actual planting rate when planting a crop. It can also be used in obtaining stand counts.

    Determine average spacing in inches between seeds (or plants) in the row. Then divide the appropriate figure in the right hand column by this figure to determine planting rate (or stand).

    Example. Grain sorghum planted in 30-inch rows is found to average 2.5 inches between seeds.

    209,088 ? 2.5 = 83,635 seeds being planted per acre.

    Or the grain sorghum stand averages 1 plant per 3.5 inches of row. Then 209,088 ? 3.5 = 59,379 plants per acre.

    You can use this method without the table as long as you remember that there are 43,560 square feet per acre and that 144 square inches = 1 square foot.

    43,560 x 144 = 6,272,630 square inches per acre.
    Divide 6,272,640 by inches of row width to obtain inches of row per acre (6,272,640 ? 30 = 209,088).

    Row spacing (inches)Inches of row
    per acre
    40155,682
    38165,069
    36174,240
    30209,088
    28224,023
    24261,360
    20313,632
    18348,480
    15418,176
    14448,046
    12522,720
    10627,264
    8784,080
    7896,091

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